Bacterial Pneumonia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Besides children and adults who are 65 years old, there are people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that belong to the high-risk group of bacterial pneumonia infection. Anyway the main risk factors for such pneumonia and the incidence in these people are still not discovered and defined.

According to many investigations, it was found out that bacterial pneumonia is more frequently found in HIV-positive than HIV-negative people. Moreover, there could be some problems with those people whose CD4 lymphocyte counts are below 200 per cubic millimeter and of course we can’t avoid mentioning that injection-drug users also come in contact with the high risk of bacterial pneumonia infection. It is known that pulmonary infections play the role of the most crucial cause of mortality and incidence in people with HIV infection. Anyway no doubt that bacterial pneumonia occurs very frequently among these people as the risk is really very high. It is quite important to make prompt and accurate diagnosis as the appropriate timely treatment can help a person and the outcome of an HIV-positive person infected with bacterial pneumonia will be reasonably good. Many studies were performed but epidemiologic characteristics of bacterial pneumonia were not distinguished properly. Moreover, there is one more thing that was not widely investigated. These are important risk factors that could be useful in developing various strategies of management and diagnosis.

Cases of bacterial pneumonia were classified as settled if there was fast development of clinical ascertainments that were compatible with that diagnosis, isolation of a likely pathogen in a relatively pure culture, focal radiographical consolidation, pleural and bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids, blood; presumed if there was fast development of compatible clinical ascertainments, a microscopical demonstration of a likely pathogen, focal radiographical consolidation, pleural and bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids and probable if there was fast development of radiographical consolidation that was associated with purulent sputum, cough and fever and also leykocytosis that answered to a therapy based on antibiotics.

At the beginning of the HIV epidemic it was discovered that those homosexual men who had AIDS bacterial pneumonia were hospitalized in most cases. It was also found that there were more cases of bacterial pneumonia among HIV-positive people than in healthy part of the population in general. Many studies were held in similar institutions where there was not enough ethnic or racial variety in the chosen population. Therefore, it was quite difficult to reach good results that could relate to all the population of HIV-infected persons.

Firstly HIV infection was considered to be a disorder of cell-mediated immunity and these days we see it as a crucial dysfunction of humoral immunity. HIV-positive people can be predisposed to various bacterial infections. After some investigations the results showed that even injection-drug users without being HIV-positive have higher risk of getting bacterial pneumonia infection than a homosexual or bisexual part of population. HIV infection only adds risk. Some people think that smoking is linked with bacterial pneumonia infection but it is still not proved that it adds a significant harm and heightens the risk of being infected. Anyway take care and keep in your mind that smoking will not make you healthier.

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